CHOLBAM should be administered as follows1:
CHOLBAM should be taken with food. For infants and children who cannot swallow capsules, CHOLBAM capsules can be opened and mixed with breast milk or food.
Administer the lowest dosage of CHOLBAM that effectively maintains liver function1
Patients taking CHOLBAM should be carefully monitored1
- Monitor AST, ALT, serum GGT, ALP, bilirubin, and INR every month for the first 3 months, every 3 months for the next 9 months, every 6 months during the subsequent 3 years, and annually thereafter.1
- Monitor more frequently during periods of rapid growth, concomitant disease, and pregnancy.1
- Discontinue treatment with CHOLBAM® if liver function does not improve within 3 months of the start of treatment or if there are persistent indicators of worsening liver function.1
- The utility of bile acid measurements in monitoring the clinical course of patients and in decisions regarding dose adjustment has not been demonstrated.1
ALP, alkaline phosphatase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; GGT, gamma glutamyltransferase; INR, international normalized ratio.
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REFERENCE: 1. CHOLBAM. Prescribing information. Mirum Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
INDICATIONCHOLBAM® (cholic acid) is a bile acid indicated for
- Treatment of bile acid synthesis disorders due to single enzyme defects.
- Adjunctive treatment of peroxisomal disorders, including Zellweger spectrum disorders, in patients who exhibit manifestations of liver disease, steatorrhea, or complications from decreased fat-soluble vitamin absorption.
LIMITATIONS OF USEThe safety and effectiveness of CHOLBAM on extrahepatic manifestations of bile acid synthesis disorders due to single enzyme defects or peroxisomal disorders, including Zellweger spectrum disorders, have not been established.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS – Exacerbation of liver impairment
- Monitor liver function and discontinue CHOLBAM in patients who develop worsening of liver function while on treatment.
- Concurrent elevations of serum gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) may indicate CHOLBAM overdose.
- Discontinue treatment with CHOLBAM at any time if there are clinical or laboratory indicators of worsening liver function or cholestasis.
- The most common adverse reactions (≥1%) are diarrhea, reflux esophagitis, malaise, jaundice, skin lesion, nausea, abdominal pain, intestinal polyp, urinary tract infection, and peripheral neuropathy.
- Inhibitors of Bile Acid Transporters: Avoid concomitant use of inhibitors of the bile salt efflux pump (BSEP) such as cyclosporine. Concomitant medications that inhibit canalicular membrane bile acid transporters such as the BSEP may exacerbate accumulation of conjugated bile salts in the liver and result in clinical symptoms. If concomitant use is deemed necessary, monitoring of serum transaminases and bilirubin is recommended.
- Bile Acid Binding Resins: Bile acid binding resins such as cholestyramine, colestipol, or colesevelam adsorb and reduce bile acid absorption and may reduce the efficacy of CHOLBAM. Take CHOLBAM at least 1 hour before or 4 to 6 hours (or at as great an interval as possible) after a bile acid binding resin.
- Aluminum-Based Antacids: Aluminum-based antacids have been shown to adsorb bile acids in vitro and can reduce the bioavailability of CHOLBAM. Take CHOLBAM at least 1 hour before or 4 to 6 hours (or at as great an interval as possible) after an aluminum-based antacid.
PREGNANCYNo studies in pregnant women or animal reproduction studies have been conducted with CHOLBAM.
LACTATIONEndogenous cholic acid is present in human milk. Clinical lactation studies have not been conducted to assess the presence of CHOLBAM in human milk, the effects of CHOLBAM on the breastfed infant, or the effects of CHOLBAM on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for CHOLBAM and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from CHOLBAM or from the underlying maternal condition.
GERIATRIC USEIt is not known if elderly patients respond differently from younger patients.
- Discontinue treatment with CHOLBAM if liver function does not improve within 3 months of the start of treatment.
- Discontinue treatment with CHOLBAM at any time if there are clinical or laboratory indicators of worsening liver function or cholestasis. Continue to monitor laboratory parameters of liver function and consider restarting at a lower dose when the parameters return to baseline.